Château Mouton Rothschild was established in 1853 when Baron Nathaniel de Rothschild bought and renamed Château Brane-Mouton. A temporary decline in quality in the 1840s saw the original estate narrowly miss out on a classification as a First Growth in 1855. It was under the Rothschild ownership that restoration of its reputation began, with the Château finally being upgraded to a First Growth in 1973. This was the only Bordeaux property ever to achieve this.
Mouton Rothschild was also the first Château in Bordeaux to bottle its wine on the property. This ensured the quality of the wine was not lost during transportation. A decision that saw the other top Châteaux soon follow suit. The property was confiscated by the Germans during World War II when, as a Jew, Baron Philippe fled to London after escaping from prison.